Raymond Bernard Cattell, nado en Hill Top o 20 de marzo de 1905 e finado en Honolulu o 2 de febreiro de 1998 foi un psicólogo británico-estadounidense, coñecido pola súa investigación psicométrica das estruturas psicolóxicas intrapersoais. Crystallized intelligence correlates with abilities that depend on knowledge and experience, such as vocabulary, general information, and analogies. Some researchers have linked the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence to Piaget’s conception of operative intelligence and learning. Crystallized intelligence is possibly more amenable to change as it relies on specific, acquired knowledge. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 13. Nach Aufenthalten an der Clark und der Harvard University war er 1945 bis 1974 Professor für Psychologie an der University of Illinois. It may be suggested that tests of intelligence may not be able to truly reflect levels of fluid intelligence. In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated Gf and Gc, respectively) are factors of general intelligence originally identified by Raymond Cattell. The individual has to determine the missing colors within each of the puzzles using the key. An example of the flexibility of, or ability to revise, crystallized intelligence can be seen in beliefs about Santa Claus. After student subjects were given a 10 day training regime, based on the dual-n back working memory theory, their scores on the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, were found to have increased significantly. [2] Mit seinem Lehrer Cyril Burt teilte er die Sorge, dass der IQ der Nation aufgrund zu starker Vermehrung der weniger Begabten absinken könnte und schlug vor, dem entgegenzuwirken, „indem man die Bevölkerungsteile mit einer sehr niedrigen geistigen Kapazität, die zum zivilisierten Leben ungeeignet sind, entfernt“[3]. In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC IV) the Perceptual Reasoning Index contains two subtests that assess Gf: Matrix Reasoning, which involves induction and deduction, and Picture Concepts, which involves induction. Cattell studierte an der University of London zuerst Naturwissenschaften. Fluid intelligence generally correlates with measures of abstract reasoning and puzzle solving. The individual is presented with a set of logic rules, a “key” that is used to solve the puzzles. Später wandte er sich der Psychologie zu und promovierte 1929. By contrast, the other is invested in particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others.” Thus, his claim was that each type, or factor, was independent of the other, though many authors have noted an apparent interdependence of the two. Cattell, Raymond Bernard, 1905-1998, in Staffordshire geborener Persönlichkeitspsychologe. Like fluid ability’s relation to crystallized intelligence, Piaget’s operativity is considered to be prior to, and ultimately provides the foundation for, everyday learning. These authors contend that a low score on tests which are intended to measure fluid intelligence may reflect more a lack of interest in the tasks rather than inability to complete the tasks successfully. Fluid intelligence is predominant in individuals with Autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome. Since Matrix Reasoning and Picture Concepts involve the use of visual stimuli and do not require expressive language they are considered to be non-verbal tests of Gf. According to Cattell, “…it is apparent that one of these powers… has the ‘fluid’ quality of being directable to almost any problem. Crystallized intelligence appears to be a function of brain regions that involve the storage and usage of long-term memories, such as the hippocampus. Fluid ability and Piaget’s operative intelligence both concern logical thinking and the education of relations. On Concept Formation tasks,the individual has to apply concepts by inferring the underlying “rules” for solving visual puzzles that are presented in increasing levels of difficulty. Personality, he believed, was not just some unknowable and untestable mystery. 1978 nahm er eine Stelle an der University of Hawaii an. Im Gegensatz zum g-Faktor-Modell von Charles Spearman unterscheidet Cattell in seiner Zweikomponententheorie der Intelligenz 1971 zwei Faktoren zweiter Ordnung (Faktorenanalyse), die fluide und die kristallisierte Intelligenz. According to David Geary, Gf and Gc can be traced to two separate brain systems. (2008). Cattell studierte an der University of London zuerst Naturwissenschaften. It is the product of educational and cultural experience in interaction with fluid intelligence. Individuals at the preschool level have to point to a shape that is different from others in a set. Nach Aufenthalten an der Clark und der Harvard University war er 1945 bis 1974 Professor für Psychologie an der University of Illinois. For example, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) measures fluid intelligence on the performance scale and crystallized intelligence on the verbal scale. Rather, they are believed to be separate neural and mental systems. In der Persönlichkeitstheorie entwickelte er mit Hilfe der Faktorenanalyse ein Modell von 16 bipolaren Dimensionen (als situationsunabhängige Grundeigenschaften der Persönlichkeit), mit der sich jede Person beschreiben ließe und die dem offen gezeigten Verhalten zugrunde lägen; sie schlagen sich im Fragebogen Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) nieder. Fluid intelligence includes such abilities as problem-solving, learning, and pattern recognition. This is sometimes called investment. März 1905 in West Bromwich, Staffordshire, England; † 2. Fluid intelligence, like reaction time, peaks in young adulthood and then steadily declines. He was inspired by these innovations and was eager to apply the scientific methods used to make such discoveries to the human mind and personality. Cattell argumentierte, dass „es sich bei ‚nationalen Stereotypen’ nicht nur um Erfindungen der Phantasie handelt“[1] und forderte, dass nationale und „rassische“ Temperamentsunterschiede bei der Städteplanung berücksichtigt werden sollten. The test also contains some of the features involved in using symbolic formulations in other fields such as chemistry and logic. Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. For example, a child who has just learned to add numbers now owns a new piece of crystallized intelligence; but his or her general ability to learn and understand, Gf, has not been altered. In the Analysis-Synthesis test, the individual has to learn and orally state the solutions to incomplete logic puzzles that mimic a miniature mathematics system. Vocabulary tests and the verbal subscale of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are considered good measures of Gc.

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